Development policy cannot be effective without just international trade rules. The EU’s development policy should be complemented by its commitment to good regulation.
In its relationship with Africa, in particular with Sub-Saharan Africa, the EU faces the challenge of achieving policy coherence between its altruistic development policy and its highly competitive trade policy. This is crucial since the sums involved in international trade are far larger than any development aid, however generous: ‘Trade relations can no longer be based solely on the principle of free, unchecked competition, for it very often creates an economic dictatorship. Free trade can be called just only when it conforms to the demands of social justice.’ (Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 1967, § 59). This lack of coherence is most vividly apparent in the matter of natural resources.